Unani System of Medicine is the science in which we learn various states of body, in health and when not in health, and means by which health is likely to be lost and, when lost, is likely to be restored.
It is a form of traditional medicine commonly practiced in Middle- East and South- Asian countries which originated in Greece almost 2500 years back. This sytem of medicine discusses the health and diseased condition of the human body in all preventive, promotive and curative aspects.
The most important fundamental principles are:
Because of these fundamental principles the Unani system has some unique features i.e.unique holistic approach, reproducibility, ease of practice, application and clinical success.
According to the Unani system, the human body is composed of seven natural and basic components called "Umoor-e-Tabaiyah" which is mainly responsible to maintain the health. The human body stands by these factors. Alteration in these may alter the functioning of the body.
These are 1. Arkaan (elements) 2. Mizaj (temperament) 3. Akhlaat (humours) 4. Aa'za (organs) 6. Arwaah (spirit/vital forces) 7. Quw'a (faculty/energy) 7. Afa'al (functions/actions).
The entire universe is made up by these three matters similarly human body is also formed in that way. these are as under:
1- Solid. 2- Liquid and 3- Gaseous.
These six essential factors are responsible for the health as well as disease of the body. These are as follows:
1. Hawa (Air)
2. Maakool wa mashroob (Food & drink)
3. Harkat wa Sokoon-e-Badani (physical movement & repose)
4. Harkat wa Sokoon-e-Nafsani (mental movement & repose)
5. Naum wa Yaqza (sleeping habits)
6. Ihtebas wa Istifragh (retention & evacuation)
Unani System of Medicine believes that the real physician is the body’s intrinsic power of healing and maintaining its normal state of health (Ṭabī‘at).
Tabiyat (Medicatrix naturae) is responsible for all physiological functioning of the body in healthy condition, prevent the body from the disease and cure the disease by eradicating the causing substance. If tabiyat is strong then a man will not suffer from a disease easily. If it weakens a man can fall in the disease easily.
It is a distinguished feature of Unani medicine conceived by Hippocrates (460BC). According to this theory, the human body consists of three types of materials: Solids which are named as organs (A’zaa), Liquids which are named as Humours (Akhlaat) and gaseous matter named as Arwaah (pneuma).
Akhlaat (Humours) are divided into four groups namely Dam (Blood), Balgham (Phlegm), Safra (Yellow Bile) and Sauda (Black Bile).
The humors are also having their own temperament as dam is hot and wet, balgham is cold and wet, safra is hot and dry and sauda is cold and dry.
The humours are responsible for nourishment and over all body activities for which optimum qualitative and quantitative balance is necessary. According to Hippocrates "Optimum balance in quality and quantity of humors is health and disease is nothing but derangement of these humors either in quality or in quantity or both".
When disturbance in the quantity, quality and equilibrium in one or more humours occurs, it causes disease.
There are three methods of diagnosis in Unani system of medicine viz.
There are four modalitises of treatment in Unani System of Medicine as under:
It is recommended to treat diseases first with the help of Diet and Regimental therapies and if not responding, it may be treated by next line. More than one therapy may be applied simultaneously depending on the nature and severity of the disease.
Unani System of Medicine is holistic in nature and takes into account the whole personality of the individual rather than taking a reductionistic approach towards diseases.
Unani System of Medicine believes individuals have their own unique temperament according to their humoral constitution, lifestyle and environment. The interaction between four elements in the body produces various states which determine the temperament of an individual. Any deviation from normal temperament results into disease. The management of the disease depends upon the correction of altered temperament by using various regimens and drugs.
For maintaining the health of an individual, it is imperative to maintain temperament. It is also important to keep the temperament in mind while diagnosing a disease. The dominance of one or more humours in the body vitiates humour itself and causes disease. Temperament (Mizaj) is also importance in the treatment of diseases with nat