From 10 to 19 years (as per WHO standards), a teen's body changes drastically. They enters into puberty and experiences many changes from physical as well as emotional. Thus from physical shape to the personality and behavior will also change dramatically. Part of this is due to an awareness of sexuality, which is caused by monthly periods and other physical changes in body, and part is due to an increase in hormones that have an effect on mood.
Puberty-Related Growth Spurts
Changes in Girls
These characteristics describe the sequence of events as girls go through puberty:
Once girls start to menstruate, they usually grow about 1 or 2 more inches, reaching their final adult height by about age 14 or 15 years (younger or older depending on when puberty began).
Changes in BoysBoys tend to show the first physical changes of puberty between the ages of 10 and 16 years. They tend to grow quickly between ages 12 and 15. The growth spurt of boys on average is about 2 years later than that of girls. By age 16, most boys stop growing, but their muscles will continue to develop.
Characteristics of puberty in boys include:
Q. What is healthy eating for teenagers?
Healthy diet can help teenager to look good and stay healthy:
Eating breakfast: Skipping breakfast does not help in losing weight, because essential nutrients might be missed out. A healthy breakfast is an important part of a balanced diet and provides some of the vitamins and minerals required for good health. Whole grain cereal with fruit sliced over the top is a tasty and healthy way to start the day.
Aim to eat fruits and vegetables a day: Fruits and vegetables are sources of most of the vitamins and minerals which is essential for the body. Fresh fruit juice, smoothies and vegetables can help in balanced diet.
At snack time, substitute foods that are high in saturated fat or sugars for healthier choices: Foods high in saturated fat include pies, processed meats such as sausages and bacon, biscuits and crisps. Foods high in added sugars include cakes and pastries, sweets, and chocolate. Too much saturated fat can also cause high cholesterol.
Drink enough fluids: One should aim to drink at least six to eight glasses of fluids a day, water, unsweetened fruit juices (diluted with water) and milk are all healthy choices.
Eating healthy food: Foods such as whole meal bread, beans, wholegrain breakfast cereals, fruit and vegetables. Such kind of foods are high in fibre are bulky and help us feel full for longer time.
Being Underweight: Not eating a balanced diet or restricting food intake can lead to deficiency of important nutrients in the body. This can lead to weight loss. Being underweight can cause health problems, so if you're underweight it's important to gain weight but in a healthy way.
Being Overweight: Foods rich in fat and sugar are high in calories, or eating too many calories can lead to weight gain. Try to eat lesser foods that are high in fat and sugar, such as swapping to low or no sugar fizzy drinks. A healthy balanced diet will provide you with all the nutrients your body needs.
Q. What are the various health issues in teenagers?Depression:
Depression may be defined as the state of extreme dejected, where patients who exhibit this condition may develop severe apathy towards their environment.Some common symptoms of teen depression may be the following:
Teen's mood swing:Teen's has to go through lot of changes in their life from physical change to emotional and social changes. They have lots of things on their plate viz: friendships, studies, relationships, break-ups and many more. if the teenager is being cranky and moody. Followings things should be consider:
Quality of sleep: According to the National Sleep Foundation USA, teens need at least eight to nine hours of sleep a night. Teens taking less sleep are more likely to be depressed and are also more likely to have suicidal thoughts. So one should make sure a good night sleep is quintessential for healthy teen.Moods and possible depression: The teen years are often highlighted as "the best years of life". Some teens may develop depression. Parents/guardians should watch for symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, lower energy levels, and irritability. Lots of teens go through mild changes and are not depressed. But if one sees big swings in teen's usual behavior, then it should be taken seriously. Talking to the children and providing a shoulder will help a teen to get himself out of depression.
Acne:A pimple begins with the pores in the skin become clogged with a type of oil called sebum, which normally lubricates the skin and hair. Acne is common during puberty due to hormonal changes, causing the skin to overproduce sebum. Because many oil-producing glands are on the forehead, nose, and chin, this area the T-zone is where a person is most prone to pimples.
Here are some tips to help prevent breakouts and clear them up as fast as possible:
Skin should be protected from the sun. It may seem like a tan masks acne, but it's only temporary. A tan may worsen acne, not improve it. Tanning also causes damage to skin that will eventually lead to wrinkles and increase risk of skin cancer.
Q. Early warning signs of over use of alcohol, drugs, or other substances?
Some of the signs include:
Q. What are the side effects of alcohol on teen's health?
Short-term side effects of using alcohol include:
Drinking alcohol regularly and for long time leads to physical, emotional or social problems. These may include:
Q. How addiction develops?
Help teen to quit alcohol, drugs or other substances :
Know your child’s friends. Having friends who avoid cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs may be your teen’s best protection from substance abuse
Q. What are the safety tips for teens?
Self-defense means doing everything possible to avoid fighting who threatens or attacks you. Self-defense is all about using your head not your fists.
Use your brain: Those who are threatened and tries to fight back "in self-defense" actually risk making a situation worse. The attacker, who is already edgy may become even more angry and violent. The best way to handle any attack or threat of attack is to try to get away.
The best way to avoid such situation is to trust your intuition combined with the common sense.
Avoid taking risks:
Another way of self-defense is doing things that can help you stay safe. Here are some tips:
Q. Is there any national health programme in India for adolescents?
The government of India has a comprehensive package for meeting the multiple health needs of the adolescents and offers a roadmap for programmes and priorities that aim to address adolescent health ARSH (Adoloscents reproductive and sexual health) is included as a part of RMNCH+A. The National ARSH strategy provides a framework for a range of sexual and reproductive health services to be provided to the adolescents. The strategy incorporates a core package of services including preventive, promotive, curative and counseling services. Effective implementation of policies and programmes has progressed from the past few years and has lead to strengthening of Adolescent Friendly clinics and subsequently the outreach programmes.
Periodic health check-ups at the village health and nutrition days are conducted to provide services to adolescent girls who cannot access the clinic based services. The success of the programme being effective service delivery by the ANM and ASHA and selection and training of peer educators at the village level.
Various programmes for adolescents are:
School health programme:
The School Health Programme was launched to address the health needs of school going children and adolescents in the 6-18 year age groups in the Government and Government aided schools. The programme entails biannual health screening and early management of disease, disability and common deficiency and linkages with secondary and tertiary health facilities as required. This is the only public sector programme specifically focused on school age children. The focus is to address the health needs of children, both physical and mental, nutrition interventions, promotes physical activities and counseling and provision of fixed day immunization coupled with education. Weekly Iron Folic acid Supplementation, WIFS, along with biannual deworming as proposed would be linked with the school Health Programme.
Weekly Iron folic acid supplementation (WIFS):
Weekly supplementation of 100mg elemental Iron and 500ug Folic Acid (IFA) is effective in decreasing incidence and prevalence ofanemia in adolescents, MOHFW has launched the Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) Programme for school going adolescent girls and boys and for out of school adolescent girls. The Programme envisages administration of supervised weekly IFA Supplementation and biannual deworming tablets to approximately 13 crore rural and urban adolescents through the platform of Government aided and municipal school and anganwadi Kendra and combat the intergenerational cycle of anemia.
Menstrual hygiene scheme:
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) has introduced a scheme for promotion of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 year in rural areas. The pilot is being implemented in 152 districts across 20 States in the country, wherein supply in 105 districts is through central procurement with quality assurance guidelines is through local Self Help Groups. The sanitary napkin packs (containing 6 pieces each) is branded as ‘Free days’.